Keep the building warm in the winter and cool in the summer. Comfortable with little to no utility bill / fossil fuel.
This increases both psychological and physiological comfort.
Both the International Building Code and the International Residential Code have requirements for maintaining a minimum temperature in buildings. They do not have requirements for a maximum temperature in buildings though there are ventilation system requirements and there are reasonable standards for comfort.
The IBC requires that interior spaces that are intended for human occupancy need to be able to maintain a minimum interior temperature of 68 degrees at a point 3 feet above the floor. This can be done actively, passively or with a combination of the two methods. The system design is based on the design heating day for the location.
The IRC is slightly more forgiving, it says that the 68 degrees must be maintained at a point 3 feet above the floor and 2 feet from the exterior wall. You only have to provide the system where winter design temperatures are below 60 degrees. Portable space heaters can’t be used to meet the requirement
A building must be warm in the winter and cool in the summer.
Humans have been heating their buildings with various resources over the centuries. The sun is the strongest and most consistent source of heat. It is also free, abundant and clean.
There is plenty of heat coming from the sun. By directing the building toward the sun and having larger windows facing the sun, heat gain from the sun, called solar gain can be maximized. The maximized heat that is now coming into the building from the sun can be stored within thermal mass. This Thermal mass can be any earth-type material. Dirt, rock, stone, liquids such as water, beer, etc.
By adhering to and utilizing design directives as well as small, subtle ones, a building can stay warm in the winter and cool in the summer with no fossil fuels, no machines and no direct cost. The design directives come from the physics of the planet and the environmental characteristics of the local building site. Taking into account all environmental aspects of the building site will allow the building to maximize its performance potential. For example. is there full horizon to horizon sun? Are there any tall trees blocking the heat from the sun to the building? At what latitude is the local building site?
What is a Passive Building?
Summer Design Strategies
Energy Efficient Windows
The Perfect Wall
How to Install Thermal Mass
water as thermal mass: tanks
How to Install Insulation